Show content of Mainz, Willy

first name(s), surname: Willy Mainz
day of birth: 22.02.1877
birthplace: Frankfurt am Main
day of death: 02.11.1953
place of death: Tel Aviv
Mainz-Willy--Erklärung--300 A statement by Willy Mainz requested by Deutsche Bank in 1953 on his personal data and his reasons for leaving the country. Willy Mainz emphasises that he had been a German citizen "from birth until my citizenship was revoked as a Jew" and points to his imprisonment in the Buchenwald concentration camp by the Gestapo. (HADB, P03/M0021)
life: Born in Frankfurt am Main in 1877, Willy Mainz was employed at the banking house M.A. von Rothschild & Söhne from 1895 to 1901. After the banking house was liquidated in 1901, Mainz joined Disconto-Gesellschaft as an authorised signatory. From 1924 he was head of the coupon credit department. After the merger of Deutsche Bank and Disconto-Gesellschaft in 1929, the bank put Willy Mainz into early retirement for economic reasons in 1931. In addition to his work at the bank, Mainz was active in the Jewish community in Frankfurt. Immediately after the "Reichspogromnacht“ (Reich pogrom night), Willy Mainz was arrested by the Gestapo during a search of the yeshiva, a religious school, on 10 November 1938 and imprisoned in Buchenwald concentration camp. Herschel Grynszpan, whose assassination of the diplomate Ernst vom Rath was the pretext for the pogrom, was on one of the lists of pupils of the religious school in Frankfurt. Mainz was released on 26 November 1938 and left his native city of Frankfurt a few days later on 4 December 1938 to emigrate to Palestine via London. He arrived in Palestine with his wife Bertha on 10 January 1939. Emigration from Germany was presumably a condition of the SS for Mainz's release from the concentration camp.
joined Deutsche Bank (or precursor): 1901 (Disconto-Gesellschaft)
end of employment: 01.04.1931
career: 1895 - 1901 M.A. von Rothschild & Söhne
1901 - 1929 Disconto-Gesellschaft Frankfurt am Main branch (attorney, bank official, from 1924 head of the coupon collecting and credit advice department)
1929 - 1931 Deutsche Bank und Disconto-Gesellschaft Frankfurt am Main branch
last known address: 1931 - 1938 Frankfurt am Main, Königswarterstraße 25 (1936-1945 renamed to Quinckestraße)
emigration: 04.12.1938 to Palestine via England
archival sources: HADB, P03/M0020; HADB, P03/M0021; HADB, P03/M0053
literature: Dokumente zur Geschichte der Frankfurter Juden 1933-1945, pp. 239-255, p. 339

Show content of Marx, Willy

first name(s), surname: (Wilhelm) Willy Marx
day of birth: 10.05.1891
birthplace: Bingen am Rhein
day of death: 11.08.1972
place of death: Müllheim (Baden)
photo / document:
Marx-Willy--1931--300 Willy Marx 1931
Marx-Willy--Aktenvermerk--300 Department head Robert Wilberg's memo of 16 July 1937 about a conversation with Willy Marx concerning his dismissal from the Deutsche Bank at the end of the year and the rejection of his early retirement: "Mr Marx told me that he would do everything in his power to prevent this. He was a participant in the war and the state had retired all Jewish civil servants who were front-line fighters. He was also claiming this." (HADB, P03/M0093)
life: Willy Marx was born in Bingen as the son of the department stores' owner Heinrich Marx. He completed his school education with the Abitur before learning the ropes at the Bank für Handel und Industrie in Berlin, where he was employed until he began his military service in 1915. Marx did military service until the end of the First World War and then worked for various banks: in the Bingen and Kreuznach branches of the Bank für Handel und Industrie, the Süddeutsche Disconto-Gesellschaft and the Lincoln Menny Oppenheimer banking house in Frankfurt. In 1922 Willy Marx married Luise Laubscher, who was "non-Jewish". In 1923, Marx joined Disconto-Gesellschaft Frankfurt am Main branch and worked in various departments there. After the merger of Disconto-Gesellschaft with Deutsche Bank, Marx continued to be employed at the cashier of city sub branches C in Frankfurt am Main. From the end of 1936, Marx initially received offers from Deutsche Bank to move to Jewish companies such as Bankhaus Heinrich Cahn & Co. or Kaufhaus F. Ehrenfeld. After he had rejected these offers, the bank separated from him on 31 June 1938 due to his Jewish origin. In December 1938 he was sentenced to three years in prison for violating the "Foreign Exchange Act". While still in custody, Marx suffered a stroke in October 1938. Due to his conviction, Deutsche Bank withdrew Marx's pension payments. After his release in 1941, Marx managed to emigrate with his wife and daughter to Montreal, where he lived until his death. The verdict against Marx for violating the "Foreign Exchange Act" was overturned on the basis of the Act for the Reparation of National Socialist Injustice in 1950.
joined Deutsche Bank (or precursor): 01.10.1923
end of employment: 30.06.1938 
career: 1909 - 1915 Bank für Handel und Industrie Berlin (apprenticeship, employee)
1915 - 1918 military service 
1918 - 1920 Bank für Handel und Industrie Bingen and Kreuznach branch
1920 - 1921 Süddeutsche Disconto-Gesellschaft
1922 - 1923 Lincoln Menny Oppenheimer
1923 - 1929 Disconto-Gesellschaft Frankfurt branch (foreign exchange settlement, security audit, cashier of city sub branches C)
1929 - 1937 Deutsche Bank und Disconto-Gesellschaft (cashier of city sub branches C)
last known adress: until 1939 Frankfurt am Main, Nussberg 63
emigration: 1941 to Montreal
archival sources: HADB, P03/M0004; HADB, P03/M0006; HADB, P03/M0007; HADB, P03/M0093

Show content of Paechter, Curt (Kurt)

first name(s), surname: Curt (Kurt) Paechter
day of birth: 07.04.1888
birthplace: Crossen/Neumark
day of death: unknown
place of death: Auschwitz
photo / document:
Paechter_Kurt On his application photo taken in 1920, Kurt Paechter is wearing the Iron Cross 1st Class awarded to him in the First World War.
Paechter, Curt_letter_300 Memorandum from Management Board member Karl Ernst Sippell dated October 2, 1937, concerning Kurt Paechter's impending dismissal. This dismissal, with its racist motivation, is disguised, as in many other cases, as early retirement.
(HADB, P02/P0008)
life: The son of a merchant passed his school-leaving examination and went on to study law from 1906 to 1910 in Berlin and Freiburg. This was followed by spells as junior lawyer and by military service and service in action. In 1920, he joined Disconto-Gesellschaft's Berlin Head Office, where he worked as counsel in the Legal Department in 1922. After the merger with Deutsche Bank, he was appointed senior counsel, dealing primarily with matters of civil law, commercial law and criminal law. He was dismissed in 1937 owing to his Jewish origins. In 1942, Paechter was sent on a so-called "old people's transport” to the Theresienstadt Camp. In October 1944, he was deported to Auschwitz, where he was murdered.
joined Deutsche Bank (or precursor): 01.04.1920 (Disconto-Gesellschaft)
end of employment: 31.12.1938
career: 1920-1929 Disconto-Gesellschaft, Berlin Head Office, Legal Department
1929-1937 Deutsche Bank, Berlin Head Office, Legal Department
last known address: Berlin-Wilmersdorf, Nassauische Straße 61, "Stolperstein" (literally “stumbling stone or block”, metal cobblestone commemorating an individual victim of Nazism) laid on 15 April 2010 on the initiative of "Initiative Stolpersteine Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf"
transports: 30.10.1942 from Berlin to Theresienstadt
09.10.1944 from Theresienstadt to Auschwitz
archival sources: HADB, P02/P0008
literature: Deutsche Bank. Eine Geschichte in Bildern/An illustrated history, München 2006; p. 235; Berliner Gedenkbuch, p. 966; 
Theresienstädter Gedenkbuch, p. 164

Show content of Rau, Sigmund

first name(s), surname: Sigmund Rau
day of birth: 24.05.1894
birthplace: Hirschaid, Bamberg district
day of death: 08.12.1962
place of death: Bournemouth, United Kingdom
photo / document:
Rau, Sigmund_Mai-1934_x300 Sigmund Rau 1934
Rau, Sigmund_Dok_1938_x300
Letter from Sigmund Rau to Fritz Werner, Director of Deutsche Bank Frankfurt branch, written from the British exile, dated 13 May 1938: "Now I can go to work a bit more at ease and try to build up a new existence. It is very difficult to do this here in England because you can only do business if you have relationships." (HADB, P03/R0532)
life: Sigmund Rau was born in Hirschaid in 1894 as the son of the teacher Abraham Rau. After attending the secondary school in Bamberg, which he left at the age of 16, he began a two-year apprenticeship at the bank A.E. Wassermann in Bamberg. He had to interrupt his later employment there due to his war service from 1915 to 1918. In 1921, he joined Deutsche Bank Frankfurt am Main branch. There he worked first in the foreign exchange department, later in the securities trading department, and in July 1923 he recieved power of attorney. In 1924 he married Liesel Marx (21.1.1906-1960, England), who was also Jewish, but the couple remained childless. Rau was considered a proven expert in all areas of securities trading, both the stock and the bond market, especially in trading with foreign securities. Due to his Jewish descent, he was retired on June 30, 1938 at the age of only 44 and was already on leave in mid-November 1937. By the end of April 1938 he emigrated to London in order to gain a foothold with the major English banks, initially with a temporary residence and work permit. His request that Deutsche Bank help him find a job through their foreign relations was rejected. From 1939 to 1941, the bank transferred the pension payments to a blocked account, and payments stopped in mid-1941. Due to his failing health, he moved to the English coastal town of Bournemouth in 1960, where he died on December 7, 1962.
joined Deutsche Bank 02.01.1921
end of employment: Suspension: 15.11.1937, Retirement 30.06.1938

15.08.1910 - 15.08.1912 Apprenticeship at the bank A.E. Wassermann in Bamberg
15.08.1912 - 31.12.1920 Employee at the bank A.E. Wassermann, Bamberg (as an accountant, deposit department manager, vault manager, securities and foreign exchange traider)
01.05.1915 - 15.12.1918 Interruption of work due to military service
02.01.1921 - 15.11.1937 Deutsche Bank Frankfurt am Main branch, power of attorney since July 1923, foreign exchange department until 10.08.1924, after that securities trading department)

last known adress: Melemstraße 8, Frankfurt am Main
emigration: End of April 1938 to London
archival sources: HADB, P03/R0532; P03/R0079; P03/R0080; P03/R0081

Show content of Rothschild, Eduard

first name(s), surname: Eduard Rothschild
day of birth: 26.12.1885
birthplace: Frankfurt am Main
day of death: 26.11.1950
place of death: New York
photo / document:
Rothschild_Eduard_300 Eduard Rothschild as director of the Frankfurt branch in 1923
Rothschild_Eduard_Gruppenfoto1934_300 Eduard Rothschild (far right) among the Directors of the Frankfurt branch at a celebration on June 20, 1934. 

Eduard Rothschild came from Frankfurt, but was not closely related to the representatives of the famous bank of the same name. He gained international experience at the Lyon stock exchange. In 1912 he moved from the Frankfurt branch of Dresdner Bank to the Brussels branch of Deutsche Bank. Rothschild was drafted into military service throughout the First World War. Since Deutsche Bank had to close its branch in Brussels at the end of the war, Rothschild returned to his hometown and was taken over by the Frankfurt branch of Deutsche Bank.
The name "Rothschild" was - especially as a banker - after 1933 particularly burdensome. Nevertheless, he was able to hold on as a branch director of Deutsche Bank for a relatively long time, even if he was practically no longer present in external communications. After his forced retirement, he emigrated to the United States with his wife Luise, née Oppenheim. In September 1941, the Gestapo confiscated Eduard Rothschild's remaining assets, including a special account to which the Deutsche Bank's pension payments were transferred to him. At the same time, the Deutsche Bank stopped the pension payments to Eduard Rothschild, which were resumed after the end of the Second World War.

joined Deutsche Bank (or precursor): 23.09.1912
end of employment: 31.12.1937

01.10.1900 - 01.10.1902 Bankhaus M. Ladenburg (apprenticeship)
01.10.1904 - 30.09.1905 Lyon stock exchange
01.10.1905 - 31.07.1912 Dresdner Bank, Frankfurt branch (foreign exchange and stock exchange department)
23.09.1912 - 02.08.1914 Deutsche Bank, Brussels branch (head of foreign exchange department)
01.12.1918 - 19.03.1923 Deutsche Bank, Frankfurt branch (head of foreign exchange and stock exchange department)
20.03.1923 - 31.12.1937 Deutsche Bank, Frankfurt branch (director)

last known address: Frankfurt am Main, Feuerbachstraße 11
emigration: 1938
archival sources: HADB, P03/R0001/I + II + III; HADB, P03/R0494 
literature: Die Deutsche Bank in Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt am Main 2005, p. 105f.